In 2014, 4.3 billion prescriptions (and that’s not “perscriptions”) were filled for Americans at a cost of $374 billion. This is about 3 per person. Safety of these? Vioxx, Zelmorm, and Baycol were supposedly safe and effective. There were later yanked from the market as unsafe or not so effective, or both. With the government doing less research, more is coming from private companies. One-third of cancer research published in high-impact journals disclosed a conflict of interest.
The anticoagulant Xarelto, initially praised as a blood thinner that required less monitoring, has no easy antidote, and some have had severe bleeding and even death.
Most medical journals receive half or more of their income from pharmaceutical company advertising and reprint orders. In 2005 a study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association stated that one-third of all medical studies turned out to be wrong. Concerning reproducibility, more than two-thirds of researchers have tried and failed to reproduce another scientist’s experiments.